Macular Degeneration: Dry and Wet

Image courtesy of

Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD or ARMD) is a disease of the macula that causes loss of central vision, leaving side vision relatively unchanged.  The macula, an area of the retina that lines the inside back wall of your eye, is responsible for sharp, central vision necessary for many activities such as reading, driving, and recognizing faces.  AMD usually occurs in people who are age 50 and older.

There are two forms of AMD – dry and wet.  The more common, early form of dry AMD accounts for 85-90% of all AMD patients.  In dry AMD, yellow deposits known as drusen begin to accumulate at the macula.  Vision loss is generally slow and gradual.  At any time, dry AMD can progress to the more severe, wet AMD where there is swelling under the macula caused by leaky new abnormal blood vessels or choroidal neovascularization (CNV) leading to a sudden loss of vision.

Although the exact cause is unknown, AMD risk factors include:  age, smoking (2-3 times higher risk in smokers), a family history of AMD, being Caucasian or female, obesity (body mass index (BMI) >30 has 2.5 times greater risk), hypertension, high cholesterol, and prolonged UV exposure.

No cure or treatments exist for dry AMD, although nutritional supplements such as zinc, lutein, zeaxanthin and antioxidants such as vitamins A, C, and E may help prevent or slow its progression.  FDA-approved drugs directed at the abnormal blood vessels in wet AMD include Visudyne with Photodynamic Therapy (PDT), Avastin, Macugen, Lucentis, Eylea, and anti-VEGF injection therapy.

Early signs of macular degeneration can be detected in a comprehensive dilated retinal exam.  Have your eyes examined yearly by your optometrist.  If you are age 50 or older and are concerned of the symptoms you’re experiencing, have an exam sooner as early detection and appropriate follow-up care are keys to preserving your vision.

Is One Pair of Eyeglasses Adequate for Your Lifestyle?

Hiking, running, tennis, work: We have specific shoes for each activity, why should our eyes be any different? Using the computer, working, driving and playing sports each call for their own eyeglasses. For instance, distance glasses are needed for driving, but when intense focus is required in activities like reading or needlepoint, reading glasses may be essential.

Computer glasses reduce eyestrain by focusing at the intermediate range (shorter than driving distance, but farther than reading distance). Occupational lenses are specially designed for work-related tasks, placing the reading segment higher in bifocals and trifocals. For driving, polarized lenses or an anti-reflective coating are essential to reduce glare. Sports and protective eyewear should have polycarbonate lenses for safety. Sports contact lenses are another option which give better peripheral vision, an unobstructed field of view and better compatibility with goggles or head gear.

Give your eyes the care they deserve; eyeglasses made to fit your lifestyle and specific visual needs are important in maintaining healthy eyes.


Blepharitis is a chronic inflammation of the eyelids, usually around the area where the eyelashes grow. Overgrowth of bacteria or blockage of oil glands around the eyelids can cause blepharitis. It leads to red, swollen, itchy eyelids with crusting and flaking of skin around the eyelash base. Thorough cleaning of the eyelids with warm washcloth can help control the signs and symptoms. If left untreated, other complications may arise including eyelid scarring, stye formation, eyelash problems and even corneal infections. If you suspect you have blepharitis, see your optometrist for proper medical treatment. Prescription antibiotics may be necessary to control its symptoms.